ASTM-C1495 › Standard Test Method for Effect of Surface Grinding on Flexure Strength of Advanced Ceramics
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1.1 This test method covers the determination of the effect of surface grinding on the flexure strength of advanced ceramics. Surface grinding of an advanced ceramic material can introduce microcracks and other changes in the near surface layer, generally referred to as damage (see and Ref. (). ) Such damage can result in a change—most often a decrease—in flexure strength of the material. The degree of change in flexure strength is determined by both the grinding process and the response characteristics of the specific ceramic material. This method compares the flexure strength of an advanced ceramic material after application of a user-specified surface grinding process with the baseline flexure strength of the same material. The baseline flexure strength is obtained after application of a surface grinding process specified in this standard. The baseline flexure strength is expected to approximate closely the inherent strength of the material. The flexure strength is measured by means of ASTM flexure test methods.
1.2 Flexure test methods used to determine the effect of surface grinding are Test Method for Flexure Strength of Advanced Ceramics at Ambient Temperatures and Test Method for Flexure Strength of Advanced Ceramics at Elevated Temperatures.
1.3 Materials covered in this standard are those advanced ceramics that meet criteria specified in flexure testing standards and .
1.4 The flexure test methods supporting this standard ( and ) require test specimens that have a rectangular cross section, flat surfaces, and that are fabricated with specific dimensions and tolerances. Only grinding processes that are capable of generating the specified flat surfaces, that is, planar grinding modes, are suitable for evaluation by this method. Among the applicable machine types are horizontal and vertical spindle reciprocating surface grinders, horizontal and vertical spindle rotary surface grinders, double disk grinders, and tool-and-cutter grinders. Incremental cross-feed, plunge, and creep-feed grinding methods may be used.
1.5 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
Significance and Use
5.1 Surface grinding can cause a significant decrease in the flexure strength of advanced ceramic materials. The magnitude of the loss in strength is determined by the grinding conditions and the response of the material. This test method can be used to obtain a detailed characterization of the relationship between grinding conditions and flexure strength for an advanced ceramic material. The effect on flexure strength of varying a single grinding parameter or several grinding parameters can be measured. The method may also be used to compare and rank different materials according to their response to one or more different grinding conditions. Results obtained by this method can be used to develop an optimum grinding process with respect to maximizing material removal rate for a specified flexure strength requirement. The test method can assist in the development of improved grinding-damage-tolerant ceramic materials. It may also be used for quality control purposes to monitor and assure the consistency of a grinding process in the fabrication of parts from advanced ceramic materials. The test method is applicable to grinding methods that generate a planar surface and is not directly applicable to grinding methods that produce non-planar surfaces such as cylindrical and centerless grinding.
advanced ceramic; baseline flexure strength; damage tolerance; flexure strength; machining; surface grinding;; ICS Number Code 81.060.30 (Advanced ceramics)
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Oct. 1, 2016