ASTM-C856 Standard Practice for Petrographic Examination of Hardened Concrete

ASTM-C856 - 2018 EDITION - CURRENT
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This practice outlines the standard procedures for performing petrographic examination of hardened concrete samples. The samples examined may be taken from concrete constructions, that is, all sorts of objects, units, or structures that have been built of hydraulic cement concrete. They may also be concrete products or portions thereof, or concrete or mortar specimens that have been exposed in natural environments or simulated service conditions, or subjected to laboratory tests. This practice applies to samples of all types of hardened hydraulic-cement mixtures, including concrete, mortar, grout, plaster, stucco, terrazzo, and the like. The equipments generally used for specimen preparation are diamond saw, cutting lubricant, horizontal lap wheels, free abrasive machine, polishing wheel, hot plate or oven, prospector's pick and/or bricklayer's hammer, abrasives, plate-glass squares, suitable media, and microscope slides. For specimen examination, the equipments needed are stereomicroscope, dollies, petrographic or polarizing microscope, metallographic microscope, eyepiece micrometer, stage micrometer, microscope lamps, needleholders and points, bottles with droppers, assorted forceps, lens paper, refractometer, and immersion media. Appropriate procedures for the sampling, preparation, and examination of specimens are detailed methodically.

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Scope

1.1 This practice outlines procedures for the petrographic examination of samples of hardened concrete. The samples examined may be taken from concrete constructions, they may be concrete products or portions thereof, or they may be concrete or mortar specimens that have been exposed in natural environments, or to simulated service conditions, or subjected to laboratory tests. The phrase “concrete constructions” is intended to include all sorts of objects, units, or structures that have been built of hydraulic cement concrete.

Note 1: A photographic chart of materials, phenomena, and reaction products discussed in Sections 8 – 13 and Tables 1–6 are available as Adjunct C856 (ADJCO856).

1.2 The petrographic procedures outlined herein are applicable to the examination of samples of all types of hardened hydraulic-cement mixtures, including concrete, mortar, grout, plaster, stucco, terrazzo, and the like. In this practice, the material for examination is designated as “concrete,” even though the commentary may be applicable to the other mixtures, unless the reference is specifically to media other than concrete.

1.3 The purposes of and procedures for petrographic examination of hardened concrete are given in the following sections:

 

Section

 

Qualifications of Petrographers and Use of Technicians

4

Purposes of Examination

5

Apparatus

6

Selection and Use of Apparatus

7

Samples

8

Examination of Samples

9

Specimen Preparation

10

Visual and Stereomicroscope Examination

11

Polarizing Microscope Examination

12

Paste Features

13

Report

14

1.4 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The SI units in parentheses are provided for information purposes only.

1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. A specific hazard statement is given in 6.2.10.1.

1.6 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

Keywords

aggregates; air voids; alkali-silica reaction; analysis; deterioration; examination; fire effects; hardened concrete; microscopy; paste; petrographic; secondary deposits;; ICS Number Code 91.100.30 (Concrete and concrete products)

To find similar documents by ASTM Volume:

04.02 (Concrete and Aggregates)

To find similar documents by classification:

91.100.30 (Concrete and concrete products Including admixtures)

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Document Number

ASTM-C856-18

Revision Level

2018 EDITION

Status

Current

Modification Type

Revision

Publication Date

March 1, 2018

Document Type

Practice

Page Count

15 pages

Committee Number

C09.65