ASTM-D3321 Historical Revision Information
Standard Test Method for Use of the Refractometer for Field Test Determination of the Freezing Point of Aqueous Engine Coolants

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Standard Test Method for Use of the Refractometer for Field Test Determination of the Freezing Point of Aqueous Engine Coolants


1.1 This test method covers the use of a portable refractometer for determining the approximate freezing protection provided by ethylene and propylene glycol-based coolant solutions as used in engine cooling systems and special applications.

Note 1—Some instruments have a supplementary freezing protection scale for methoxypropanol coolants. Others carry a supplemental scale calibrated in density or specific gravity readings of sulfuric acid solutions so that the refractometer can be used to determine the charged condition of lead acid storage batteries.

1.2 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard. The values given in parentheses are for information only.

1.3 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

Significance and Use

This practice is commonly used by vehicle service personnel to determine the freezing point, in degrees Celsius or Fahrenheit, of aqueous solutions of commercial ethylene and propylene glycol-based coolant. A durable hand-held refractometer is available that reads the freezing point, directly, in degrees Celsius or Fahrenheit, when a few drops of engine coolant are properly placed on the temperature-compensated prism surface of the refractometer. This refractometer is for glycol and water solutions, and is not suitable for other coolant solutions.

The hand-held refractometer should be calibrated before use (see Section 7).

Care must be taken to use the correct glycol freezing point scale for the glycol type being measured. Use of the wrong glycol scale can result in freezing point errors of 18 and more degrees Fahrenheit.

Ethylene glycol/propylene glycol mixtures will result in inaccurate freezing point measurements using either freezing point scale.


engine coolants; freezing point; refractometer; ICS Number Code 17.180.30 (Optical measuring instruments)

To find similar documents by ASTM Volume:

15.05 (Engine Coolants; Halogenated Organic Solvents and Fire Extinguishing Agents; Industrial and Specialty Chemicals)

To find similar documents by classification:

17.180.30 (Optical measuring instruments Including spectroscopes, geodetic instruments, etc. Ophthalmic optics and instruments, see 11.040.70 Laser equipment, see 31.260 Fibre optics, see 33.180 Optical equipment, materials and components, see 37.020 Photographic equipment lenses, see 37.040.10)

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Document Number


Revision Level

1994 R02 EDITION



Modification Type


Publication Date

Aug. 15, 1994

Document Type

Test Method

Page Count

3 pages

Committee Number