ASTM-D4249 › Standard Test Method for Enumeration of Candida albicans in Water (Withdrawn 2013)
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1.1 This test method covers the detection and enumeration of the yeast Candida albicans in raw sewage, waste waters, and natural waters.
1.2 It is the responsibility of the analyst to determine if this test method yields satisfactory results in waters of other matrices.
This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
Significance and Use
C. albicans is a yeast that is found as a commensal in the gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and alimentary tracts of healthy individuals, both human and lower animals (3, 4, 5). As such, it is a serious opportunistic pathogen of humans and may cause superficial or deep mycotic infections. Consequently, the yeast is found in raw sewage and in natural waters receiving human and animal wastes. C. albicans can survive in situ in seawater for at least six days (6). In vitro survival of the yeast in distilled (7) and lake water (8) has been demonstrated also. While there is at present no epidemiological evidence connecting human disease caused by C. albicans and use of water, the organism may be a useful indicator of recreational water quality (9). The test method may be applied to the monitoring of various treatment processes for efficiency in removing particular pathogens in waste water prior to discharge in receiving waters which in turn may be used again for a variety of purposes. Both public health and sanitary engineering interests should be aware of the presence of this yeast in wastewater and the potential for disease in contiguous waters.
Future studies between the incidence of C. albicans and traditional water quality indicators (for example, total and fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci) may reveal a correlation of value in the assessment of potential health risks of swimming or other recreational waters.
Candida albicans; detection; enumeration; sewage; water; yeast; ICS Number Code 07.100.20 (Microbiology of water)
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1983 R05 EDITION
Nov. 1, 2005