ASTM-D4943 Standard Test Method for Shrinkage Factors of Soils by the Wax Method (Withdrawn 2017)

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Standard Test Method for Shrinkage Factors of Soils by the Wax Method (Withdrawn 2017)


1.1 This test method covers the procedure for determining the shrinkage limit of soils.

1.2 The data obtained using this test method may also be used to calculate shrinkage ratio, volumetric shrinkage, and linear shrinkage.

1.3 This test method is applicable only for cohesive soils.

1.4 Since this test method is performed only on that portion of a soil which passes the No. 40 (425-μm) sieve, the relative consistency of this portion of the soil to the properties of the sample as a whole must be considered when using these procedures to evaluate the properties of a soil.

1.5 The shrinkage limit along with the liquid limit and plastic limit of soils are often collectively referred to as the Atterberg limits in recognition of their formation by Swedish soil scientist, A. Atterberg. These limits distinguish the boundaries of the several consistency states of cohesive soils.

1.6 All recorded and calculated values shall conform to the guide for significant digits and rounding established in Practice D 6026.

1.6.1 The procedures used to specify how data are collected/recorded and calculated in this standard are regarded as the industry standard. In addition, they are representative of the significant digits that should generally be retained. The procedures used do not consider material variation, purpose for obtaining the data, special purpose studies, or any considerations for the users objectives; and it is common practice to increase or reduce significant digits of reported data to be commensurate with these considerations. It is beyond the scope of this standard to consider significant digits used in analysis methods for engineering design.

1.7 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.

1.8 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific safety hazards, see Section 7 and Note 4 and Note X1.1.


Atterberg limits; linear shrinkage; shrinkage; shrinkage limit; Calibration--soil/rock analysis instrumentation; Cohesive soils; Cracking; Earthwork; Linear shrinkage; Shrinkage--soil; Soil-moisture analysis; Swell potential; Water analysis; Wax method; ICS Number Code 13.080.20 (Physical properties of soil)

To find similar documents by ASTM Volume:

04.08 (Soil and Rock (I): D420 - D5876)

To find similar documents by classification:

13.080.20 (Physical properties of soils)

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Publication Date

June 1, 2008

Document Type

Test Method

Page Count

6 pages

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