ASTM-D7112 › Standard Test Method for Determining Stability and Compatibility of Heavy Fuel Oils and Crude Oils by Heavy Fuel Oil Stability Analyzer (Optical Detection)
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1.1 This test method covers an automated procedure involving titration and optical detection of precipitated asphaltenes for determining the stability and compatibility parameters of refinery residual streams, residual fuel oils, and crude oils. Stability in this context is the ability to maintain asphaltenes in a peptized or dissolved state and not undergo flocculation or precipitation. Similarly, compatibility relates to the property of mixing two or more oils without precipitation or flocculation of asphaltenes.
1.2 This test method is applicable to residual products from atmospheric and vacuum distillation, from thermal, catalytic, and hydrocracking processes, to products typical of Specifications , Grades No. 5L, 5H, and 6, and , Grades No. 3-GT and 4-GT, and to crude oils, providing these products contain 0.05 mass % or greater concentration of asphaltenes.
1.3 This test method is not relevant to oils that contain less than 0.05 % asphaltenes, and would be pointless to apply to unstable oils that already contain flocculated asphaltenes.
1.4 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.5 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.6 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
Significance and Use
5.1 Automatic determination of stability parameters using a light back-scattering technique improves accuracy and removes human errors. In manual testing, operators have to visually compare oil stains on pieces of filter paper to determine if asphaltenes have been precipitated.
5.2 Refinery thermal and hydrocracking processes can be run closer to their severity limits if stability parameters can be calculated more accurately. This gives increased yield and profitability.
5.3 Results from the test method could be used to set a standard specification for stability parameters for fuel oils.
5.4 The compatibility parameters of crude oils can be used in crude oil blending in refineries to determine, in advance, which crude oil blends will be compatible and thus can be used to minimize plugging problems, unit shut downs, and maintenance costs. Determination of crude oil compatibility parameters also enables refineries to select crude oil mixtures more economically.
5.5 This test method can measure stability and compatibility parameters, and determine stability reserve on different blends for particular applications to optimize the blending, storage, and use of heavy fuel oils
Note 1: Users of this test method would normally use stability and compatibility parameters to determine stability reserve of residual products, fuel blends and crude oils. However, the interpretation of stability, stability reserve and compatibility is heavily ‘use dependent,’ and is beyond the scope of this test method.
asphaltene precipitation; asphaltenes; compatibility; crude oil; heavy fuel oil; insolubility number;
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June 1, 2019