ASTM-E1822 › Standard Test Method for Fire Testing of Stacked Chairs
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1.1 This is a fire-test-response standard.
1.2 This test method provides a means of determining the burning behavior of stacking chairs used in public occupancies by measuring specific fire-test responses when a stack of chairs is subjected to a specified flaming ignition source under well ventilated conditions.
1.3 This test method is limited to stacked chairs.
1.4 Test data are obtained describing the burning behavior following application of a specific ignition source, from ignition until all burning has ceased, a period of one hour has elapsed, or flashover under test conditions appears inevitable.
1.5 This test method does not provide information on the fire performance of stacked chairs under fire conditions other than those conditions specified in this test method. In particular, this test method does not apply to smoldering ignition by cigarettes. See for further information.
1.6 The rate of heat release of the burning test specimen is measured by an oxygen consumption method. See for further information.
1.7 Other measurements are the production of light-obscuring smoke and the concentrations of certain toxic gas species in the combustion gases. See for further information.
1.8 The burning behavior is documented visually by photographic or video recordings.
1.9 This standard is used to measure and describe the response of materials, products, or assemblies to heat and flame under controlled conditions, but does not by itself incorporate all factors required for fire hazard or fire risk assessment of the materials, products or assemblies under actual fire conditions.
1.10 Fire testing is inherently hazardous. Adequate safeguards for personnel and property shall be employed in conducting these tests.
1.11 Use the SI system of units in referee decisions; see . The units given in parentheses are for information only.
1.12 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.13 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
Significance and Use
5.1 This test method provides a means of measuring a variety of fire-test-response characteristics resulting from burning a stack of five stacking chairs. After ignition using a propane gas burner, the test specimen is permitted to burn freely under well-ventilated conditions. The most important fire-test-response characteristic measured in this test method is the rate of heat release, which quantifies the intensity of the fire generated.
5.2 The rate of heat release is measured by the principle of oxygen consumption. discusses the assumptions and limitations.
5.3 This test method also provides measures of other fire-test-response characteristics, including smoke obscuration (as the rate of smoke release, total smoke released or optical density of smoke), combustion gas release (as concentrations of combustion gases), and mass loss, that are important to making decisions on fire safety.
5.4 In the majority of fires, the most important gaseous components of smoke are the carbon oxides present in all fires. They are indicators of the toxicity of the atmosphere and of the completeness of combustion. Measurement of concentrations of carbon oxides are useful for two purposes: as part of fire hazard assessment calculations and to improve the accuracy of heat-release measurements. Other toxic combustion gases, which are specific to certain materials, are also indicators of the toxicity of the atmospheres, but are less crucial for determining combustion completeness and are optional measures; however fire hazard assessment often requires their measurement.
5.5 The type of ignition chosen (flaming source) is common in both accidental and intentional fires in public occupancies. This test method is thus applicable to stacked chairs in public occupancies. Such facilities include, but are not limited to, health-care facilities, old-age convalescent and board and care homes, college dormitories and residence halls, and hotels and motels.
5.6 One of the following three configurations is to be used in this test method:
5.6.1 Test Configuration A—A test room with the following dimensions: 3.66 by 2.44 by 2.44 m high (12 by 8 by 8 ft).
5.6.2 Test Configuration B—A test room with the following dimensions: 3.66 by 3.05 by 2.44 m high (12 by 10 by 8 ft).
5.6.3 Test Configuration C—An open calorimeter (or furniture calorimeter).
5.7 Rooms of other dimensions are acceptable where it has been shown that equivalent test results are obtained.
5.8 Measurements in the three test configurations listed in have been shown to give similar results for heat release in the duct and mass loss up to a rate of heat release of 600 kW (. )
5.9 Measurements of temperatures, gas concentrations, and smoke obscuration in the room are dependent on room size.
5.10 Studies on the flammability performance of furniture indicate that bench-scale fire tests are useful for preliminary evaluations of component materials for substitution purposes (see ).
5.11.1 This test method is not applicable to ignition by cigarettes or by any other smoldering source.
5.11.2 The ignition source in this test method is a flaming source. Moreover, this particular ignition source has been shown to be able to provide a distinction among different kinds of stacked chairs. However, the fraction of actual flaming stacked chair fires occurring with ignitions more or less intense than that used here is not known.
5.11.3 It is not known whether the results of this test method will be equally valid when stacking chairs are burned under conditions different from those specified. In particular, it is unclear whether the use of a different ignition source, the same ignition source but having a different duration of flame exposure, or a different gas-flow rate will change the results.
5.11.4 The value of rate of heat release corresponding to the critical limit between propagating fires and nonpropagating fires is not known.
5.11.5 As yet, there is not a known direct correlation between smoke obscuration or smoke toxicity measurements in the exhaust duct and overall fire hazard.
calorimetry; carbon dioxide; carbon monoxide; chair; fire; fire testing; fire-test response; furniture; heat release; ignition; oxygen consumption; smoke obscuration; stacked chair; stacking chair; toxic combustion gases;
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Nov. 15, 2021