ASTM-E2283 Historical Revision Information
Standard Practice for Extreme Value Analysis of Nonmetallic Inclusions in Steel and Other Microstructural Features

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Standard Practice for Extreme Value Analysis of Nonmetallic Inclusions in Steel and Other Microstructural Features




1.1 This practice describes a methodology to statistically characterize the distribution of the largest indigenous nonmetallic inclusions in steel specimens based upon quantitative metallographic measurements. The practice is not suitable for assessing exogenous inclusions.

1.2 Based upon the statistical analysis, the nonmetallic content of different lots of steels can be compared.

1.3 This practice deals only with the recommended test methods and nothing in it should be construed as defining or establishing limits of acceptability.

1.4 The measured values are stated in SI units. For measurements obtained from light microscopy, linear feature parameters shall be reported as micrometers, and feature areas shall be reported as micrometers.

1.5 The methodology can be extended to other materials and to other microstructural features.

1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

Significance and Use

This practice is used to assess the indigenous inclusions or second-phase constituents in metals using extreme value statistics.

It is well known that failures of mechanical components, such as gears and bearings, are often caused by the presence of large nonmetallic oxide inclusions. Failure of a component can often be traced to the presence of a large inclusion. Predictions related to component fatigue life are not possible with the evaluations provided by standards such as Test Methods E 45, Practice E 1122, or Practice E 1245. The use of extreme value statistics has been related to component life and inclusion size distributions by several different investigators (3-8). The purpose of this practice is to create a standardized method of performing this analysis.

This practice is not suitable for assessing the exogenous inclusions in steels and other metals because of the unpredictable nature of the distribution of exogenous inclusions. Other methods involving complete inspection such as ultrasonics must be used to locate their presence.


extreme value statistics; inclusion length; maximum inclusion length; maximum likelihood method; ICS Number Code 77.040.99 (Other methods of testing metals)

To find similar documents by ASTM Volume:

03.01 (Metals -- Mechanical Testing; Elevated and Low-Temperature Tests; Metallography)

To find similar documents by classification:

77.040.99 (Other methods of testing of metals)

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Document Number


Revision Level

2008 R19 EDITION



Modification Type


Publication Date

Dec. 1, 2019

Document Type


Page Count

11 pages

Committee Number