ASTM-E2340 Standard Test Method for Measuring the Skid Resistance of Pavements and Other Trafficked Surfaces Using a Continuous Reading, Fixed-Slip Technique

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Standard Test Method for Measuring the Skid Resistance of Pavements and Other Trafficked Surfaces Using a Continuous Reading, Fixed-Slip Technique




1.1 This test method covers the measurement of the skid resistance of a pavement or other trafficked surface using the continuous reading, fixed-slip technique.

1.2 This test method covers braked wheel measurements obtained with less than 100 % slip. It does not cover side force measurements.

1.3 This test method provides a record of the skid resistance along the whole length of one track of the test surface and enables averages to be obtained for specified test segments.

1.4 This test method is used to measure skid resistance on a wide variety of surfaces in a wide variety of circumstances. Consequently, there are many different designs of continuous reading, fixed-slip measuring equipment (CFME) and as many different test procedures governing their use.

1.5 This test method does not attempt to detail these different equipments and procedures but does set out the essential common principles.

1.6 CFMEs function by creating and measuring a frictional force between a test tire operating at a selected slip and the test surface. Different types of CFME do not necessarily create the same frictional force between their particular test tire and a common test surface and do not necessarily use the same method to measure this frictional force.

1.7 CFME measurements are obtained at a selected steady test speed. This speed may vary according to the application.

1.8 The test surface may be contaminated or clean and dry. If it is clean and dry, a measured amount of water is normally deposited on the surface just in front of the test wheel.

1.9 The measuring apparatus may be built into a vehicle, built into a trailer that is towed by a vehicle, or built into a device that is manually pushed.

1.10 The values stated in either SI units or inch-pound units are to be regarded separately as standard. The values stated in each system may not be exact equivalents; therefore, each system shall be used independently of the other. Combining values from the two systems may result in non-conformance with the standard.

1.11 This standard may involve hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. Safety precautionary information is contained in Section 7.


braking slip friction; braking slip ratio; fixed slip; operational friction testing; routine friction testing;; ICS Number Code 93.080.20 (Road construction materials)

To find similar documents by ASTM Volume:

04.03 (Road and Paving Materials; Vehicle-Pavement Systems)

To find similar documents by classification:

93.080.20 (Road construction materials Including asphalts, road pavements, etc.)

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Document Number


Revision Level

2011 R15 EDITION



Modification Type


Publication Date

Dec. 15, 2015

Document Type

Test Method

Page Count

6 pages

Committee Number