ASTM-F1571 Historical Revision Information
Standard Test Method for Determination of Abrasion and Smudge Resistance of Images Produced from Business Copy Products (Sutherland Method)

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Standard Test Method for Determination of Abrasion and Smudge Resistance of Images Produced from Business Copy Products (Sutherland Method) (Withdrawn 2017)


1.1 This test method covers a procedure for determining the amount of image transferred from one site and redeposited at another site (smudge) on a document. The Sutherland Ink Rub Tester with 4-lb (1.82-kg) test block is the test instrument for producing the transfer and either a reflectometer or densitometer is employed for measuring the change in images. Alternatively, a visual rating order can be employed to establish a ranking order. The degree to which the original image is unaltered upon rubbing is considered to be the abrasion resistance.

1.2 This test method can be employed to evaluate the smudge resistance of business imaging products produced by typewriters, and impact printers.

1.3 This test method can also be employed to measure performance characteristics for a product. The user should select test equipment that is appropriate for measuring the degree of abrasion to the samples. Samples are tested before and after rubbing and comparisons of results made. In this test method product performance evaluations are optional.

1.4 Other test methods employing the Crockmeter, Taber Abrader, and Gavarti GA-C.A.T. can be employed to evaluate the smudge and abrasion characteristics. Results by these units are not necessarily equivalent to those obtained with the Sutherland.

1.5 The values stated in inch-pound units are to be regarded as the standard. The SI units given in parentheses are for information only.

1.6 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

Significance and Use

This test method is designed to simulate the type of damage resulting from paper rubbing against a printed image. The primary method of evaluation is either reflectance or optical density readings. Depending upon the objective of the test, comparison of either the image or the area adjacent to the image is evaluated before and after rubbing.

This test method can be used for control of product quality as well as a research and development tool.

As written this test method is intended for use only with impact printed images involving ribbons. However, it can be modified to evaluate other types of business images such as those produced by non-impact printers and copiers, ink jet printers, and thermal transfer printers.

The degree of image transferred by rubbing from a printed image can be affected by various factors including the type of printer, the condition of the unit, supplies employed, time since imaging, and environmental conditions. As many as possible of these variables should be controlled during the test. A control sample with known characteristics, if available, should be run along with the test samples.


abrasion; abrasion resistance; densitometer; image permanence; impact printer; printed matter; reflectometer; smudge; Sutherland; typewriter ribbon; Impact printers; Printed matter; Reflectometer/reflectrometry; Smudge; Sutherland ink rub tester; Typewriter materials/applications; Abrasion resistance--copy materials/printed products; Densitometer; Image analysis--copy materials; Image permanence; ICS Number Code 37.100.10 (Reproduction equipment)

To find similar documents by ASTM Volume:

15.09 (Paper; Business Imaging Products)

15.11 (Consumer Products; Light Sport Aircraft; Unmanned Aircraft Systems; Normal and Utility Category Airplane Electrical Wiring Systems; Unmanned Maritime Vehicle Systems (UMVS))

To find similar documents by classification:

37.100.10 (Reproduction equipment Including printing, copying and duplicating machines, bookbinding equipment, etc.)

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Document Number


Revision Level

1995 R08 EDITION



Modification Type


Publication Date

Jan. 1, 2008

Document Type

Test Method

Page Count

5 pages

Committee Number