ASTM-G197 › Standard Table for Reference Solar Spectral Distributions: Direct and Diffuse on 20° Tilted and Vertical Surfaces
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1.1 This table provides terrestrial solar spectral irradiance distributions that may be employed as weighting functions to (1) calculate the broadband solar or light transmittance of fenestration from its spectral properties; or (2) evaluate the performance of building-integrated technologies such as photovoltaic electricity generators. Most of these systems are installed on vertical walls, but some are also installed on pitched roofs or on other tilted structures, such as sunspaces. Glazing transmittance calculations or measurements require information on both the direct and diffuse components of irradiance. The table provides separate information for direct and diffuse irradiance, and for two different tilt angles, 20° and 90° relative to the horizontal. All distributions are provided at 2002 wavelengths within the spectral range 280–4000 nm. The data contained in this table reflect reference spectra with uniform wavelength interval (0.5 nanometer (nm) below 400 nm, 1 nm between 400 and 1700 nm, an intermediate wavelength at 1702 nm, and 5 nm intervals from 1705 to 4000 nm). The data table represents reasonable cloudless atmospheric conditions favorable for the computerized simulation, comparative rating, or experimental testing of fenestration systems.
1.2 The data contained in this table were generated using the SMARTS version 2.9.2 atmospheric transmission model developed by Gueymard (. , )
1.3 The selection of the SMARTS radiative model to generate the spectral distributions is chosen for compatibility with previous standards (ASTM and ). The atmospheric and climatic conditions are identical to those in ASTM . The environmental conditions are also identical, with only one exception (see sections and ).
1.4 The table defines four solar spectral irradiance distributions:
1.4.1 Separate direct and diffuse solar spectral irradiance incident on a sun-facing, 20° tilted surface in the wavelength region from 280–4000 nm for air mass 1.5, at sea level.
1.4.2 Separate direct and diffuse solar spectral irradiance incident on a sun-facing, 90° (vertical) tilted surface in the wavelength region from 280–4000 nm for air mass 1.5, at sea level.
1.5 The diffuse spectral distribution on a vertical surface facing away from the sun (i.e., shaded), or at any prescribed azimuth away from the sun, may be computed using the model to obtain representative results (i.e., results that fall within an acceptable range of variance).
1.6 The climatic, atmospheric, and geometric parameters selected reflect the conditions to provide a realistic set of spectral distributions appropriate for building applications under very clear-sky conditions, representative of near-maximum solar heat gains in buildings.
1.7 A wide variety of orientations or local environmental conditions is possible for exposed surfaces. The availability of the SMARTS model (as an adjunct to this standard) used to generate the standard spectra allows users to evaluate spectral differences relative to the spectra specified here.
albedo; building; collector; daylight; diffuse radiation; direct radiation; fenestration; glazing; photovoltaic; reflectance; skylight; solar energy; solar spectral irradiance; terrestrial; transmittance; window;; ICS Number Code 17.180.01 (Optics and optical measurement in general); 27.160 (Solar energy engineering)
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Dec. 15, 2014