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Standard Test Method for Measuring Angular Displacement of Multiple Images in Transparent Parts

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Standard Test Method for Measuring Angular Displacement of Multiple Images in Transparent Parts




1.1 This test method covers measuring the angular separation of secondary images from their respective primary images as viewed from the design eye position of an aircraft transparency. Angular separation is measured at 49 points within a 20 by 20° field of view. This procedure is designed for performance on any aircraft transparency in a laboratory or in the field. However, the procedure is limited to a dark environment. Laboratory measurements are done in a darkened room and field measurements are done at night (preferably between astronomical dusk and astronomical dawn).

1.2 Units—The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. The values given in parentheses after SI units are provided for information only and are not considered standard.

1.3 This standard possibly involves hazardous materials, operations, and equipment. This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

1.4 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.

Significance and Use

5.1 With the advent of thick, highly angled aircraft transparencies, multiple imaging has been more frequently cited as an optical problem by pilots. Secondary images (of outside lights), often varying in intensity and displacement across the windscreen, can give the pilot deceptive optical cues of his altitude, velocity, and approach angle, increasing his visual workload. Current specifications for multiple imaging in transparencies are vague and not quantitative. Typical specifications state “multiple imaging shall not be objectionable.”

5.2 The angular separation of the secondary and primary images has been shown to relate to the pilot's acceptability of the windscreen. This procedure provides a way to quantify angular separation so a more objective evaluation of the transparency can be made. This procedure is of use for research of multiple imaging, quantifying aircrew complaints, or as the basis for windscreen specifications.

5.3 It is of note that the basic multiple imaging characteristics of a windscreen are determined early in the design phase and are virtually impossible to change after the windscreen has been manufactured. In fact, a perfectly manufactured windscreen has some multiple imaging. For a particular windscreen, caution is advised in the selection of specification criteria for multiple imaging, as inherent multiple imaging characteristics have the potential to vary significantly depending upon windscreen thickness, material, or installation angle. Any tolerances that might be established are advised to allow for inherent multiple imaging characteristics.


aircraft transparency; angular displacement; canopy; primary image; secondary image; transparent parts; windscreen ;

To find similar documents by ASTM Volume:

15.03 (Space Simulation; Aerospace and Aircraft; Composite Materials)

To find similar documents by classification:

17.180.01 (Optics and optical measurements in general)

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Document Number


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Modification Type


Publication Date

May 19, 2020

Document Type

Test Method

Page Count

4 pages

Committee Number