ASTM-F2148 › Standard Practice for Evaluation of Delayed Contact Hypersensitivity Using the Murine Local Lymph Node Assay (LLNA)
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1.1 This practice provides a methodology to use a combination of in vivio and in situ procedures for the evaluation of delayed contact hypersensitivity reactions.
1.2 This practice is intended to provide an alternative to the use of guinea pigs for evaluation of the ability of a device material to stimulate delayed contact hypersensitivity reactions. This alternative is particularly applicable for materials used in devices that contact only intact skin. However, the guinea pig maximization test is still the recommended method when assessing the delayed hypersensitivity response to metals or when testing substances that do not penetrate the skin but are used in devices that contact deep tissues or breached surfaces. This practice may be used for testing metals, with the exception of nickel-containing metals, unless the unique physicochemical properties of the materials may interfere with the ability of LLNA to detect sensitizing substances.
1.3 This practice consists of a protocol for assessing an increase in lymphocyte proliferation in the lymph nodes draining the site of test article administration on the ears of mice.
1.4 The LLNA has been validated only for low-molecular-weight chemicals that can penetrate the skin. The absorbed chemical or metabolite must bind to macromolecules, such as proteins, to form immunogenic conjugates.
1.5 This practice is one of several developed for the assessment of the biocompatibility of materials. Practice may provide guidance for the selection of appropriate methods for testing materials for a specific application.
1.6 Identification of a supplier of materials or reagents is for the convenience of the user and does not imply a single source. Appropriate materials and reagents may be obtained from many commercial supply houses.
1.7 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as standard. No other units of measurement are included in this standard.
1.8 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety, health, and environmental practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.
1.9 This international standard was developed in accordance with internationally recognized principles on standardization established in the Decision on Principles for the Development of International Standards, Guides and Recommendations issued by the World Trade Organization Technical Barriers to Trade (TBT) Committee.
Significance and Use
5.1 The propensity of a material to stimulate delayed contact hypersensitivity must be assessed before clinical application of devices containing this material. Delayed hypersensitivity may occur anywhere in the body. Systemic delayed hypersensitivity may have a complex set of reactions and consequences depending on the actual tissue/organ site of reaction. Although the reactions are seldom life-threatening, severe tissue and organ damage my result over time. Skin is the usual test site to determine the propensity of a material to cause delayed hypersensitivity.
5.2 The standard historical test methods have involved the use of guinea pigs with a cutaneous application and observation of the reaction site. The use of the murine local lymph node assay results in a numerical quantitation of stimulation, rather than subjective evaluation and could be used to determine dose responses.
5.3 This practice may not be predictive of events occurring during all types of implant applications. The user is cautioned to consider the appropriateness of the method in view of the materials being tested, their potential applications, and the recommendations contained in Practice .
biocompatibility; contact hypersensitivity; local lymph node assay; LLNA; mouse; sensitization;; ICS Number Code 07.100.10 (Medical microbiology)
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