ASTM-D4692 › Historical Revision Information
Standard Practice for Calculation and Adjustment of Sulfate Scaling Salts (CaSO4, SrSO4, and BaSO4) for Reverse Osmosis and Nanofiltration
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1.1 This practice covers the calculation and adjustment of calcium, strontium, and barium sulfates for the concentrate stream of a reverse osmosis or nanofiltration system. The calculations are used to determine the need for scale control in the operation and design of reverse osmosis and nanofiltration installations. This practice is applicable for all types of reverse osmosis devices (tubular, spiral wound, and hollow fiber) and nanofiltration devices.
1.2 This practice is applicable to both brackish waters and seawaters.
Significance and Use
In the design and operation of reverse osmosis and nanofiltration installations, it is important to predict the CaSO4, SrSO 4, and BaSO4 scaling properties of the concentrate stream. Because of the increase in total dissolved solids and the increase in concentration of the scaling salts, the scaling properties of the concentrate stream will be quite different from those of the feed solution. This practice permits the calculation of the scaling potential for the concentrate stream from the feed water analyses and the reverse osmosis or nanofiltration operating parameters.
Scaling by CaSO4, SrSO4, and BaSO4 will adversely affect the reverse osmosis or nanofiltration performance. This practice gives various procedures for the prevention of scaling.
barium; calcium; membrane fouling; membrane scaling; nanofiltration; reverse osmosis; strontium; sulfate scaling:; ICS Number Code 71.120.99 (Other equipment for the chemical industry)
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71.120.99 (Other equipment for the chemical industry)
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2001 R06(E1) EDITION
Reapproval with Ed Change
Feb. 1, 2007