ASTM-D93 Standard Test Methods for Flash Point by Pensky-Martens Closed Cup Tester

Show Complete Document History

Document Center Inc. is an authorized dealer of ASTM standards.
The following bibliographic material is provided to assist you with your purchasing decision:

Standard Test Methods for Flash Point by Pensky-Martens Closed Cup Tester



Changes from the previous issue

A redline edition is available for this document, with all changes visible. Ask Document Center Inc. for more information.


1.1 These test methods cover the determination of the flash point of petroleum products in the temperature range from 40 °C to 370 °C by a manual Pensky-Martens closed-cup apparatus or an automated Pensky-Martens closed-cup apparatus, and the determination of the flash point of biodiesel in the temperature range of 60 °C to 190 °C by an automated Pensky-Martens closed cup apparatus.

Note 1: Flash point determinations above 250 °C can be performed, however, the precision has not been determined above this temperature. For residual fuels, precision has not been determined for flash points above 100 °C. The precision of in-use lubricating oils has not been determined. Some specifications state a D93 minimum flash point below 40 °C, however, the precision has not been determined below this temperature.

1.2 Procedure A is applicable to distillate fuels (diesel, biodiesel blends, kerosine, heating oil, turbine fuels), new and in-use lubricating oils, and other homogeneous petroleum liquids not included in the scope of Procedure B or Procedure C.

1.3 Procedure B is applicable to residual fuel oils, cutback residua, used lubricating oils, mixtures of petroleum liquids with solids, petroleum liquids that tend to form a surface film under test conditions, or are petroleum liquids of such kinematic viscosity that they are not uniformly heated under the stirring and heating conditions of Procedure A.

1.4 Procedure C is applicable to biodiesel (B100). Since a flash point of residual alcohol in biodiesel is difficult to observe by manual flash point techniques, automated apparatus with electronic flash point detection have been found suitable.

1.5 These test methods are applicable for the detection of contamination of relatively nonvolatile or nonflammable materials with volatile or flammable materials.

1.6 The values stated in SI units are to be regarded as the standard.

1.6.1 Exception—The values given in parentheses are for information only.

Note 2: It has been common practice in flash point standards for many decades to alternately use a C-scale or an F-scale thermometer for temperature measurement. Although the scales are close in increments, they are not equivalent. Because the F-scale thermometer used in this procedure is graduated in 5 °F increments, it is not possible to read it to the 2 °C equivalent increment of 3.6 °F. Therefore, for the purposes of application of the procedure of the test method for the separate temperature scale thermometers, different increments must be used. In this test method, the following protocol has been adopted: When a temperature is intended to be a converted equivalent, it will appear in parentheses following the SI unit, for example 370 °C (698 °F). When a temperature is intended to be a rationalized unit for the alternate scale, it will appear after “or,” for example, 2 °C or 5 °F.

1.7 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use. For specific warning statements, see 6.4, 7.1, 9.3, 9.4, 11.1.2, 11.1.4, 11.1.8, 11.2.2, and 12.1.2.


automated flash point; automated Pensky-Martens closed cup; flammability; flash point; Pensky-Martens closed cup;; ICS Number Code 13.220.40 (Ignitability and burning behaviour of materials and products); 75.080 (Petroleum products in general); 75.160.20 (Liquid fuels)

To find similar documents by ASTM Volume:

05.01 (Petroleum Products and Lubricants (I): D56 - D3710)

To find similar documents by classification:

13.220.40 (Ignitability and burning behaviour of materials and products)

75.080 (Petroleum products in general)

75.160.20 (Liquid fuels Including gasoline, diesel, kerosene, etc.)

This document comes with our free Notification Service, good for the life of the document.

This document is available in either Paper or PDF format.

Document Number


Revision Level




Modification Type


Publication Date

Oct. 15, 2016

Document Type

Test Method

Page Count

18 pages

Committee Number